Prescription Drug Index

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ACTIQ

Actiq (Fentanyl) Lollipop

ACTIQ is the brand name of a prescription opioid medication that is only to be used for the treatment of breakthrough pain in cancer patients. ACTIQ is only recommended for those patients with cancer who 1) already take and have developed tolerance to another opioid painkiller but continue to have uncontrolled pain and 2) are at least 16 years old.

Fentanyl, the active ingredient in ACTIQ, is between 50 and 100 times stronger than morphine.

The active ingredient in ACTIQ is fentanyl citrate, a manmade opioid pain medication that is between 50 and 100 times stronger than morphine. Fentanyl is prescribed in a number of forms and brand names, including sublingual tablets (Abstral), patches placed on the skin (Duragesic), and injections:

ACTIQ, in particular, uses a novel method to deliver fentanyl to the individual. ACTIQ is an oral transmucosal lozenge on the end of a stick. The fentanyl is combined with inactive ingredients like citric acid or confectioner’s sugar to create a sweet, berry-flavored medication sometimes referred to as:

  • Fentanyl lollipop.
  • ACTIQ lollipop.

Special care must be taken when beginning treatment with ACTIQ. It is intended to be used only in cases of unmanaged cancer pain and should not be used within 4 hours of the previous dose. Use of this substance outside of these parameters is considered misuse/abuse and may cause an array of health risks and may even be fatal.

Now commonly referred to as “the drug that killed Prince,” fentany produces effects similar to that of heroin but is actually a much more potent drug. These effects include:

  • A euphoric “high.”
  • Pain relief.
  • Mental and physical relaxation.
  • Drowsiness.

Misusing ACTIQ is incredibly dangerous due to:

  • The strength of the substance.
  • The rapid onset of effects.
  • The short duration of effects.

Someone that is abusing ACTIQ may be unprepared for the strength of the substance and experience serious health consequences or overdose, which can cause serious respiratory depression and death.

and Symptoms

Aside from the ACTIQ “high” described above, someone abusing ACTIQ may also exhibit the following physical signs and symptoms:

  • Pain.
  • Fever.
  • Weakness.
  • Headache.
  • Indigestion.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Dehydration.
  • Constipation.
  • Sleep changes.
  • Rash.
  • Weight loss.
  • Changes in sexual functioning or desire.

While many of these are normal side effects of fentanyl, if these symptoms arise in someone without a valid prescription or increase in frequency and severity for someone with a prescription, ACTIQ abuse and/or addiction may be present or developing.

Adderall

This drug is classified as a central nervous system stimulant, which means it speeds up and heightens certain bodily processes. Adderall is an oral medication prescribed by a physician who will normally start a patient on a low dose to avoid unwanted side effects, gradually increasing it as necessary.

and Symptoms
Even medically approved use of Adderall can cause side effects; abusing the drug, however, can cause side effects to occur with higher frequency and intensity. Common symptoms of abuse include:

  • Headache.
  • Dry mouth.
  • Hoarseness.
  • Nausea.
  • Stomach upset.
  • Digestive issues.
  • Reduced appetite.
  • Diarrhea or constipation.
  • Anxiety.
  • Restlessness.
  • Pounding or fast heartbeat.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Difficulty sleeping and staying to sleep.
  • Excessive fatigue.
  • Changes in sex drive.

Continued use can lead to more severe effects. With long-term abuse or abuse that involves high doses of Adderall, the symptoms can compound and lead to even more dangerous effects.

These effects include:

  • Weakness or numbness in the arms or legs.
  • Dizziness.
  • Slowed or difficult speech.
  • Chest pain.
  • Hives or rash.
  • Blistering or peeling skin
  • Changes in vision.
  • Aggressive behavior.
  • Paranoia.
  • Mania.
  • Seizures.

What Is Adderall?
Adderall is a combination of amphetamine and dextroamphetamine that is used primarily to treat the symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It has benefits with sleep disorders and reported, off-label utility in managing some forms of severe depression as well.

How Do Individuals Abuse Adderall?
Abuse occurs in several ways including:

  • Taking a higher dose of the substance than prescribed.
  • Taking the medicine through a non-approved method like snorting.
  • Taking the drug for reasons other than medical need, such as to stay awake for long periods of time.
  • Taking the medication more frequently than prescribed.
  • Taking someone else’s medication.
  • Purchasing the drug from an illicit source for recreational use.

Alprazolam

What is Alprazolam?
Alprazolam is a benzodiazepine substance better known by its brand name, Xanax. All benzodiazepines are depressant medications that slow down a user's body and mind, resulting in reduced anxiety and increased relaxation.

Signs and Symptoms
Many of the drug's effects are possible even when taking the medication as prescribed. Abuse of the substance will heighten and intensify these effects. Alprazolam abuse is marked by:

  • Taking the substance more often or in higher doses than prescribed.
  • Taking the substance without a prescription.
  • Taking the substance for non-medical reasons.

Alprazolam is capable of producing unwanted effects. They include:

  • Sedation.
  • Problems with speech and coordination.
  • Feeling dizzy and disoriented.
  • Poor memory and concentration.
  • Reduced blood pressure.
  • Reduced respiration rate.

Effects of Alprazolam
In the body, alprazolam increases the effects of another substance called GABA, which is a neurotransmitter that down-regulates excitatory brain activity, slowing down the firing of neurons. This results in alprazolam’s ability to produce a sedating, tranquilizing effect.

Tolerance, a condition that commonly occurs with alprazolam use, is when the body adapts to the increased amounts of the substance resulting in higher levels of the drug needed to produce the previously experienced effects. When higher levels are needed or when the substance is used in combination with alcohol or opioids like methadone, there is increased risk of overdose, which can lead to:

  • Dangerously slowed breathing.
  • Extreme sedation.
  • Coma.

Ambien

What is Ambien?
Ambien is a brand name for zolpidem tartrate, a sedative drug that is prescribed to treat insomnia (difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep).

As a short-acting, non-benzodiazepine hypnotic drug, Ambien is effective in initiating and maintaining sleep.

and Symptoms
When taken for prolonged periods of time - even at a prescribed dose - Ambien use can be habit-forming.

The unwanted effects of Ambien use differ between individuals, but may include:

  • Next-day drowsiness.*
  • Fatigue.
  • Dizziness.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Delusions or hallucinations.
  • Somnambulism (sleepwalking).
  • Coordination problems.
  • Amnesia or short-term memory loss.

* Concerns about next-day drowsiness are particularly pronounced for extended-release formulations of zolpidem such as Ambien CR.

In 2013, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) updated its labeling requirements for zolpidem to recommend lower initial doses to avoid next-day impairment and to warn patients taking extended-release formulations not to drive or undertake other dangerous activities the day after taking the medication.

Effects of Ambien
Ambien abuse can lead to a number of negative consequences, which include:

  • Physical dependence.
  • Withdrawal symptoms.
  • The risk of overdose--potentiated when taken in a setting of other substances such as alcohol.
  • Addiction.

Amphetamines

What Are Amphetamines?
Amphetamines are central nervous system (CNS) stimulants prescribed for the treatment of:

  • Narcolepsy.
  • Hyperactivity, e.g. ADHD.
  • Asthma.

and Symptoms
If you suspect that someone you care about is misusing amphetamines, it is important that you learn the signs of amphetamine abuse. There are a few key characteristics that most people who are abusing amphetamines exhibit:

  • Elevated body temperature.
  • Rapid rate of speech.
  • Dilation of the pupils.
  • Spike in blood pressure.
  • Increased respiration rate.

Effects of Amphetamine
Over the long term, someone with an amphetamine problem can expect serious health-related consequences.

The effects of amphetamine abuse can include:

  • Permanent mental and cognitive impairment, e.g. poor memory recollection.
  • Brain structural abnormalities have been seen in MRIs of patients known to abuse amphetamines.
  • Emotional disturbances, e.g. depression or psychosis.
  • Physical health problems, e.g. heart problems and malnourishment.
  • Social problems, e.g. withdrawal from friends and family.

Ativan

What Is Ativan?
Ativan (generic name: lorazepam) is prescribed to people that need assistance managing symptoms of anxiety and panic. While it may not be a primary indication for the drug, and potentially primes the patient for habitual use, the substance is sometimes prescribed to those who need help falling asleep.

What Is Ativan Abuse?
Ativan abuse is characterized by:

  • Taking the drug without a prescription.
  • Use of Ativan in higher doses or higher frequencies than prescribed.
  • Using Ativan via ill-advised, non-prescribed methods such as crushing up the pills to snort, or dissolving in liquid for intravenous use.
  • Use for nonmedical reasons like "getting high."

What Are The Withdrawal Symptoms Of Ativan?
Symptoms can begin within a few hours after last use and include:

  • Insomnia.
  • Tachycardia or increased heart rate.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Anxiety and worried thoughts.
  • Agitation.
  • Convulsions.
  • Seizures.

and Symptoms
Someone using benzodiazepines like Ativan may experience the following common side effects of use:

  • Physical and mental relaxation.
  • Feelings of calm.
  • Euphoria.
  • Slowed response time.
  • Poor coordination and motor skills.
  • Slowed breathing rates.
  • Lowered ability to concentrate.

Taken at high doses and over a long time, Ativan can cause the following symptoms:

  • Dangerously slowed breathing.
  • Memory issues and forgetfulness.
  • Lack of motivation.
  • Decreased interest in pleasurable activities.
  • Aggression.
  • Paranoia.

Mixing depressants like alcohol with Ativan can lead to:

  • Seizures.
  • Coma.
  • Death.

Other serious effects of Ativan abuse can include kidney failure, extreme depression and respiratory failure. Overdose from benzodizepines like Ativan can be fatal.

Barbiturates

What is Barbiturate Abuse?
Some people abuse barbiturates because they desire the pleasant psychoactive effects of these drugs, which are similar to those of alcohol. These effects include making the user feel happy, relaxed, more talkative, and less inhibited.

Abusing barbiturates is extremely dangerous and can lead to severe short- and long-term physical and psychological symptoms, physical dependence, and accidental death.

and Symptoms
Some common signs of barbiturate intoxication include:

  • Increased talkativeness.
  • Elation.
  • Reduced inhibition.
  • Impaired judgment.
  • Emotional fluctuations.
  • Sedation (users may seem really relaxed or drowsy).
  • Slurred speech.
  • Lack of coordination (users may fall over frequently).
  • Confusion.

Effects of Barbiturate
People who are abusing barbiturates will exhibit signs that are similar in presentation to someone who is intoxicated by alcohol. These effects include, but certainly are not limited to the following:

Physical Health

  • Increased sensitivity to sound.
  • Increased sensitivity to pain.
  • Changes in blood pressure.
  • Breathing difficulties.
  • Increased risk of developing bronchitis and pneumonia.
  • Irregular menses in women.
  • Sexual dysfunction.
  • Increased risk of kidney failure.
  • Respiratory depression.
  • Overdose.
  • Death.

Mental Health

  • Anxiety, restlessness, or panic.
  • Impaired mental functioning.
  • Emotional instability.
  • Loss of short- or long-term memory.
  • Insomnia.
  • Hallucinations.
  • Depression.

Benzodiazepines

What Are The Withdrawal Symptoms Of Benzodiazepine
The appearance of withdrawal symptoms upon cessation of use is a clear sign that the user has developed a dependence on the drug. Benzo withdrawal symptoms include:

  • Anxiety.
  • Depression.
  • Insomnia.
  • Increased heart rate and blood pressure.
  • Excessive sweating.
  • Hand tremors.
  • Hallucinations.
  • Seizures.

Depression, anxiety, and insomnia may occur for extended periods of time (for several months) following acute withdrawal from benzodiazepines and may contribute to relapse in recovering addicts.

and Symptoms of
Benzodiazepine intoxication is frequently characterized by:

  • Drowsiness.
  • Dizziness.
  • Double vision.
  • Slurred speech.
  • Muscle weakness.
  • Slowed reaction time.
  • Incoordination.
  • Poor concentration and memory.
  • Confusion.
  • Stupor.

Effects of Benzodiazepine
Benzodiazepines can be beneficial for short-term management of anxiety, seizure, and muscle spasm, but chronic use can lead to tolerance and subsequent dependence on benzodiazepines, resulting in longer-term side effects. Some of these risks are present even when benzodiazepines are used as prescribed.

Side effects can impact physical and mental health, occupational and social functioning, as well as cause serious injuries or fatalities. Other consequences may include

Physical and Mental Health Effects:

  • Gastrointestinal problems.
  • Musculoskeletal issues.
  • Impaired memory, focus, and attention.
  • Cognitive deterioration in the elderly.
  • Loss of self-confidence.
  • Blunted or numbed emotions.
  • Depression and suicidal ideation.

Concerta

What Is Concerta?

Concerta is the brand name for an "extended-release" version of methylphenidate. Methylphenidate is also prescribed under the brand name Ritalin and is most often used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, particularly in children and young adults (although adult ADHD diagnoses are on the rise, as well).

Is Concerta A Stimulant Drug?
Concerta, or methylphenidate, is a schedule II stimulant drug, which means it has a high potential for abuse and addiction. When taken in high doses, Concerta can produce physical and mental effects similar to street drugs like cocaine and methamphetamine.

Signs and Symptoms of Concerta
If you have a suspicion that someone you know may be facing an addiction to Concerta, you should be aware of what to look for. Familiarize yourself with these signs of Concerta abuse:

  • Grinding of the teeth.
  • Heightened feelings of wakefulness.
  • Difficulty sleeping.
  • Loss of appetite and weight loss.
  • Irritability.
  • Feelings of elation or mania.
  • Sweats.
  • Fixation with repetitive motions.
  • Psychotic behavior, such as delusions or hallucinations.

Effects of Concerta
A person with a Concerta addiction needs to be aware of the effects of methylphenidate abuse. Although it is a prescribed medication, Concerta can have negative effects on a person similar to those of methamphetamine or cocaine when it is not being used as prescribed. Some of the effects of Concerta abuse can include:

  • Paranoia and other psychotic features.
  • Malnutrition due to lack of appetite.
  • Poor impulse control.
  • Headaches.
  • Gastrointestinal complaints.
  • Irregular heartbeat.
  • Infection and vascular injury in those who abuse Concerta intravenously.
  • Seizures.
  • Death.

Codeine

What is Codeine Abuse ?

Codeine is an opiate drug often found in prescription-strength cough syrups, or in a combination formulation with various other analgesics (for example, with acetaminophen - under the brand name Tylenol 3). It is used clinically to treat pain and coughing; however, it is also often abused due to its euphoric side effects.

Codeine addiction is a widespread, far-reaching problem that spans across ages, ethnicities and socioeconomic backgrounds.

Codeine is an addictive drug with potentially dangerous effects at high dosages. It essentially acts as a depressant of the central nervous system. This leads users to experience:

  • Feelings of relaxation.
  • Euphoria.
  • Drowsiness.
  • Slowed heart rate.

and Symptoms of
If you think someone you are close to may be addicted to codeine, there are a few traits for which you can keep an eye out:

  • Dizziness and staggering.
  • Itchiness and scratching (often of the nose).
  • Constricted or pinpoint pupils.
  • Slow breathing.
  • Confused mental state.
  • Complaints of constipation.
  • Blue appearance to lips or fingernails.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Delirium and hallucination.
  • Seizures.

Effects of Codeine Abuse?
There are many unpleasant side of codeine abuse, some of which can be fatal. These effects include:

  • Gastrointestinal distress.
  • Clouded thinking and impaired judgment.
  • Depression.
  • Drastic lowering of blood pressure.
  • Slowed heart rate.
  • Liver malfunction (especially with the Tylenol formulations).

Demerol

What is Demerol Abuse?
Demerol, also known by the street name “demmies” and the generic name meperidine, is a prescription opioid painkiller. Demerol is used to treat relatively severe pain and is available in liquid or tablet form.

As a schedule II prescription drug, Demerol has a high potential for physical and psychological dependence. Demerol abusers may buy the drug from street dealers and/or go “doctor shopping” (seeking out multiple doctors for prescriptions) to get the drug.

Recognizing the signs and symptoms of Demerol abuse can prevent severe negative consequences from occurring.

Signs and Symptoms
The signs and symptoms of Demerol abuse can vary from person to person. Some signs you may notice in a person under the influence Demerol may include:

  • Drowsiness.
  • Confusion.
  • Euphoria.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Small pupils.
  • Constipation.
  • Slowed breathing.

Effects of Demerol
For those who abuse Demerol, side effects may be severe. Abusing prescription opioids can put people at higher risk of developing the following issues:

  • Physical and psychological dependence.
  • Depression.
  • HIV, hepatitis, and other infectious diseases (if sharing needles).
  • Permanent brain damage due to hypoxia (insufficient oxygen to the brain).
  • Potentially fatal respiratory depression.

A danger specific to Demerol is that one of its metabolites, normeperidine, has the potential to be neurotoxic, especially if it builds up in neural tissues with repeated, high dose use. A build-up of this metabolite may cause agitation, tremors, and seizures.

Desoxyn

What is Desoxyn?
Desoxyn is a prescription stimulant medication that contains methamphetamine hydrochloride.

As a stimulant medication, Desoxyn increases the activity of a group of neurotransmitters in the brain called monoamines, including dopamine. Generally, the medication is provided at a very low dose and safely adjusted for the individual. However, when too much is taken or the drug is taken without a medical need, increased dopamine activity can lead to a feeling of euphoria, or a “high,” and addiction becomes more likely.

Signs and Symptoms
When it comes to the use of prescription medications, it can sometimes be challenging to observe whether use has turned into abuse. If someone is prescribed the substance and takes it as prescribed for the reason it is prescribed, this is not abuse. However, when use patterns veer away from this, the user enters dangerous territory.

It should be noted that despite their reputation as study drugs, there is no evidence to show that prescription stimulants improve academic performance in people without ADHD. In reality, people that abuse stimulants tend to have lower grades than classmates that do not.

The wanted effects of Desoxyn eventually give way to the side effects of the medication, which include:

  • Lower appetite.
  • Inability to sleep.
  • Restlessness.
  • Irritability.
  • Decreased attention.
  • Impaired judgment.
  • Personality changes.
  • Higher body temperature.
  • Sweating.
  • High blood pressure/quickened pulse.
  • Breathing issues.
  • Chest pain.
  • Anxiety.
  • Tremors.

Some of these signs and symptoms may present as normal side effects of use, but they will increase in number, frequency, and intensity as the substance is abused.

Effects of Desoxyn
As a person misuses Desoxyn, they are at risk of not only the side effects associated with the drug but also of becoming addicted.

Dextroamphetamine

What is Dextroamphetamine Abuse?
Dextroamphetamine is a Schedule II controlled substance that carries a high risk of abuse and addiction. Stimulants like dextroamphetamine are often abused for their ability to produce desirable feelings such as:

  • Increased energy.
  • Heightened focus.
  • Increased alertness.
  • Suppressed appetite.
  • Feelings of euphoria.

and Symptoms
A number of symptoms may indicate the abuse of dextroamphetamine, including:

  • Rapid heartbeat.
  • Reduced appetite or weight loss.
  • Tremors.
  • Sleep difficulty.
  • Dry mouth.
  • Mood swings.
  • Verbal tics.
  • Hostility.
  • Paranoia.
  • Hallucinations.
  • Erratic behavior.
  • Tolerance (needing to frequently increase the dose to feel the same effects).
  • Withdrawal symptoms when attempting to cut down use.

The user may have a persistent runny nose or nosebleeds if the pills are crushed and snorted. A user may have needle or “track” marks if he or she injects the pills.

Effects of Dextroamphetamine
The abuse of dextroamphetamine has serious health consequences, including:

  • Difficulty thinking clearly.
  • Impaired memory.
  • Unhealthy weight loss; malnutrition.
  • Hypertension (raised blood pressure).
  • Tachycardia (raised heart rate).
  • Impaired eyesight.
  • Psychotic symptoms.
  • Tremors.
  • Seizures (highest risk in patients with seizure history).
  • Heart attack.
  • Stroke.
  • Death.

Dextromethorphan

What Is Dextromethorphan Abuse?
When taken in excess doses and via alternative methods, DXM can actually act as a dissociative anesthetic, mimicking the effects of drugs like PCP and Ketamine.
What are the Dextromethorphan Street Names?

  • Skittles.

What Are The Withdrawal Symptoms of Dextromethorphan Abuse?
Typically, someone who has been using dextromethorphan long-term and suddenly quits will experience withdrawal symptoms including:

  • Fatigue.
  • Gastrointestinal distress (vomiting, diarrhea).
  • Insomnia.
  • Nightmares.
  • Memory issues.
  • Panic attacks.
  • Intense cravings.
  • Flashbacks.

Symptoms

  • Euphoria.
  • Feelings of detachment from the body.
  • Blotchy skin.
  • Depression.
  • Difficulty speaking.
  • Dilated pupils.
  • Dizziness.
  • Hallucinations.
  • Involuntary movements (ataxia).
  • Double vision.
  • Drowsiness.
  • Impaired ability to walk.
  • Itching.
  • Numbness of fingers and toes.
  • Symptoms of psychosis.
  • Racing heart.
  • Vomiting.

Effects of Dextromethorphan
There are several dextromethorphan problems that can occur from abuse. The most alarming risks are serious illness or death.

Severe illness or death is not necessarily caused by the misuse of dextromethorphan by itself. However, serious illness and death can result from the effects of the combination of DXM with other active ingredients found in multi-symptom cold medications.

These ingredients include acetaminophen (Tylenol), chlorpheniramine (an antihistamine), pseudoephedrine (a decongestant), and phenylephrine. Abuse of medicines that contain these active ingredients in combination with DXM can cause the following:

  • Liver failure.
  • Tachycardia (rapid heart rate).
  • Seizures.
  • Hyperthermia.
  • Respiratory depression.
  • Coma.

Dilaudid

What Is Dilaudid?
Dilaudid (hydromorphone) is a prescription opioid prescribed for the relief of pain. It may be prescribed as a liquid, tablet, rectal suppository, or injectable solution.

and Symptoms
It can sometimes be difficult for an individual to realize he or she has become dependent on Dilaudid, as addiction may develop after being prescribed the medication by a doctor. If you are concerned that you or a loved one may be addicted to Dilaudid, look for the following common signs and symptoms of Dilaudid addiction:

  • Mood swings, ranging from euphoric highs to depressive and irritable lows.
  • Noticeable breathing problems.
  • Itching/scratching.
  • Excessive sweating.
  • Taking laxatives to help with constipation (a common opioid side effect).
  • Poor coordination.
  • Nodding off (momentary lapses in consciousness; difficulty staying awake and alert).
  • Development of tolerance (needing more of the drug to achieve the same effect).
  • Withdrawal symptoms that appear when use is stopped (nausea & vomiting, stomach cramps, muscle aches, sweating, cold chills, appetite loss, diarrhea, insomnia, etc.)

Effects of Dilaudid
There are a number of potential side effects of Dilaudid, which may increase in severity with higher doses. These include:

  • Headache.
  • Pinpoint pupils.
  • Stomach cramps.
  • Constipation.
  • Nausea.
  • Vomiting.
  • Muscle aches and pains.
  • Dry mouth.
  • Appetite loss.
  • Dizziness/lightheadedness.
  • Drowsiness.
  • Anxiety.
  • Itchiness.
  • Rash.
  • Hoarse voice.
  • Loss of consciousness.
  • Blood pressure changes
  • Slowed breathing.
  • Seizures.

Gabapentin

What is Gabapentin?
Gabapentin (Neurontin) is an anticonvulsant that comes in a capsule, tablet, and oral solution.

Concerns have arisen in recent years over increasing instances of gabapentin abuse. According to the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN), the number of emergency room visits involving non-medical use of gabapentin increased by 90% in the United States since 2008.

Side Effects
Gabapentin can result in a number of physical and psychological effects, including suicidal thoughts and behaviors.

Other Side Effects:

  • Dizziness
  • Difficulty speaking
  • Lack of coordination
  • Temporary loss of memory (amnesia)
  • Tremor
  • Sleepiness
  • Coordination problems
  • Double vision
  • Unusual eye movement
  • Jerky movements
  • Restlessness
  • Agitation
  • New or worsening irritability or anxiety
  • Panic attacks
  • Insomnia
  • Acting on dangerous impulses
  • Mania
  • Depression
  • Aggressive, violent, or angry behavior

Can You Overdose on Gabapentin?
Like opiates, you can fatally overdose on Gabapentin. However, unlike opiates, there is no antidote that you can administer in the case of an overdose. Because of the drug’s long half-life, immediate medical attention is necessary to manage the complications associated with a toxic amount of this drug.

Hydrocodone

What Is Hydrocodone?
Hydrocodone is an opioid analgesic (painkiller) drug – included in the formulation of many narcotic prescription painkillers that are most often prescribed to control moderate to severe pain. As an opiate drug, it is in the same family as morphine and oxycodone; like many other opioid substances, it has a high potential to lead to dependency and addiction if it is abused.

What Drugs Contain Hydrocodone?
Hydrocodone or hydrocodone-containing drugs are sold under many brand names including Vicodin, Lortab and Norco. Many of opioid painkillers are a combination of hydrocodone and acetaminophen—a drug that when abused can cause severe liver damage.

How Do I know If I’m Abusing Hydrocodone?
Abuse occurs whenever you use the medication in a manner other than that recommended by a doctor. If you take a larger dose of hydrocodone than prescribed, take it for a longer period than recommended, or take it more often throughout the day than directed, you are abusing hydrocodone.

Signs and Symptoms
When taken as directed, hydrocodone relieves pain, but it also can cause side effects in users—especially in those abusing this medication by taking it for non-medical purposes. The most common side effects include:

  • Nausea.
  • Vomiting.
  • Constipation.
  • Dizziness.
  • Drowsiness.
  • Confusion.

Behaviors indicative of active substance abuse:

  • Exaggerating pain symptoms or lying about injury to receive prescriptions.
  • Requesting frequent refills for the drug.
  • Seeing two or more doctors for additional prescriptions.
  • Social isolation, or spending more time away from other people.
  • Going through money quickly.
  • Focusing more on obtaining and using hydrocodone than taking part in formerly enjoyable or valued activities.
  • Marked mood changes.

Symptoms of overdose may include the following:

  • Generalized muscle weakness.
  • Slowed breathing.
  • Slowed heartbeat.
  • Cold or clammy skin.
  • Profound drowsiness.
  • Loss of consciousness.
  • Coma.
  • Death.

Hydromorphone

What Is Hydromorphone?
Hydromorphone is an opioid pain medication.

Like other opioid pain medications, hydromorphone works to change perceptions of pain in the user. It does not treat the underlying cause of the pain

What Drugs Contain Hydrocodone?
Dilaudid, one brand name for hydromorphone, is sought illicitly under the names:

  • D
  • Footballs
  • Dust
  • Juice
  • Smack
  • Dillies

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