Illicit Drug Index

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Alcohol

What is Alcohol Abuse?
Individuals who suffer from alcohol abuse do not always exhibit the same symptoms. The type of symptoms experienced by an individual will depend on a number of factors, such as the individual's background and medical history. While alcohol abuse symptoms do vary, there are signs and symptoms that can indicate a problem. Signs of alcohol abuse include:
  • Decreased involvement in extracurricular activities.
  • Loss of interest in work or school.
  • Depression.
  • Lack of interest in family or friends.
  • Preoccupation with drinking.
  • Restlessness.
  • Inability to control drinking.
  • Erratic behavior.
  • Violent behavior.
Effects of Alcohol Abuse?

Short-Term Effects

  • Nausea.
  • Vomiting.
  • Headaches.
  • Slurred speech.
  • Impaired judgment.

Long-Term Effects

  • Blackouts.
  • Memory loss.
  • Liver disease.
  • Thiamine deficiency.

Bath Salts

What are Bath Salts?
The basis of these drugs lies in the khat plant, a shrub that grows in east Africa and parts of the Arabian penninsula. The plant produces cathinones, which act in a similar way to amphetamines. They act as stimulants on the central nervous system. Effects of Bath Salts Abuse

Long-term abuse of bath salts appears to result in effects similar to amphetamines:

  • Psychosis.
  • Dizziness.
  • Heart problems.
  • Malnutrition.
  • Ulcers.
  • Mood disorders.
  • Total loss of coordination.

Media outlets have reported serious disturbances as being a side effect of bath salt use. The Miami cannibal incident in May 2012 was widely reported as being a bath salts-caused attack, although the investigation could not determine the ultimate cause of the apparent psychosis.

Mental health disorders cover a wide range of issues, including severe depression and attempts at suicide. People might also self-mutilate and become delirious. Death is not uncommon.

Ultimately, the most dangerous side effect of bath salts appears to be addiction, which causes users to lose touch with reality and lose their sense of self-control. While there are few studies on bath salts that show an addictive potential, the stimulation of certain neural pathways indicates that these drugs work in a similar way to amphetamines, creating similar addiction profiles.

Signs And Symptoms
As with most stimulants, bath salt use leads to:

  • Rapid heart rate.
  • High blood pressure.
  • Dilated pupils.

This increases the risk of heart attack and stroke during even short-term use. Bath salts have been associated with headaches and palpitations in a significant number of users. Increased sexual stimulation has been associated with bath salts, potentially leading to risky sexual activities.

Physical symptoms are not the only signs of bath salt use, however. If a loved one is using bath salts, you might notice that he has lost his appetite and no longer eats as much as he did. If your loved one is at school, you might notice that her grades have dropped and that her sleeping patterns have changed. For those who work, changes in work ethic and serious sleep disturbances might occur. The person might even lose his or her job thanks to erratic behavior.

Cocaine

What is Cocaine?
Cocaine is attractive as a recreational substance due to the perceived positive effects on mood, motivation, and energy. Someone abusing cocaine may smoke, snort, or take it intravenously (via injection). Signs and Symptoms

Typical signs and symptoms of current cocaine use include:

  • Increased agitation.
  • Effusive enthusiasm.
  • Disinhibition.
  • Increased movement (i.e. hyperactivity).
  • Increased common cold-like symptoms and/or nosebleeds.
  • Signs of involuntary movements (i.e. muscle tics).
  • Changes in concentration and focus.
Other Adverse Effects

One of the most serious effects of cocaine abuse is heart muscle damage. Cocaine may cause damage by inducing cell death in the muscles of the heart (cardiomyopathy). Intravenous cocaine use can lead to inflammation of the inner tissues of the organ (endocarditis).

These cellular effects of cocaine cumulate into serious conditions such as heart attacks and cardiac arrhythmias, which may be fatal. Other symptoms of cocaine-induced cardiotoxicity include:

  • Inflammation of heart muscle.
  • Rupture of the aorta, the major artery leading from the heart.
  • Severe declines in health and life quality due to reductions in cardiac function or severe blood loss.

Cocaine-induced heart failure or damage may also increase the risk of stroke, or brain damage resulting from interruptions in the blood supply available to the brain.

The abuse of this drug is also associated with kidney damage. The prolonged use of cocaine is thought to be related to the inflammation of important microstructures within this organ.

Crack

Crack Cocaine

As a powerful stimulant, crack use can elicit a rapid, euphoric high. Its stimulant effect on the body means that it will speed up various mental and physical processes, serving to increase energy, attention and focus. As a smoked form of cocaine, crack cocaine use results in near immediate effects because the drug is readily absorbed from the lungs into the bloodstream, where it then quickly travels throughout the body and brain. The effects are quick to be felt, peak quickly, and then end after only 5 or 10 minutes. Compared with the non-freebase form of cocaine, this hastened abuse cycle of crack adds to the risk of tolerance, dependency and addiction.

Signs and Symptoms

Crack is addictive because it causes an intense high. When users smoke crack, they experience extreme euphoria. Everything they experience seems more intense, and they may become energetic or overly alert as a result of taking the drug. The brain's reward centers are activated by crack stimulation, and reinforce continued and repeated use of the drug.

When the high wears off, the user feels a need to smoke more crack because he or she becomes agitated, restless, paranoid, or irritable.

Physical Symptoms

Parents or others close to an individual potentially addicted to crack may benefit from knowing what some of the warning signs or such an addiction are. Some of the physical signs of crack abuse include:

  • Dilated pupils.
  • Insomnia.
  • Increased heart rate.
  • Hypertension (raised blood pressure).
  • Suppressed appetite and weight loss.
  • Fasciculations / twitching of the muscles.
  • Nosebleeds.

Psychological and Behavioral Symptoms

  • Aggression and volatile mood swings.
  • Psychotic symptoms, such as hallucinations and paranoia.
  • Persistent and obsessive thoughts about smoking crack.
  • Inability to stop despite a strong desire to do so.
  • Tendency to put a high priority on obtaining the drug.
  • Smoking crack at the expense of your finances, your relationships, or other important aspects of your life.


Crystal Meth

Crystal Meth
Crystal methamphetamine (crystal meth) is a powerful central nervous stimulant with highly addictive properties. Signs and Symptoms?

Crystal meth is a powerful stimulant. No matter what route of administration is used—injected, smoked or inhaled—an individual will experience a rapid onset of its effects.

  • Increased physical activity.
  • Increased blood pressure and breathing rate.
  • Elevated body temperature.
  • Dilated pupils.
  • Heavy sweating.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Sleeplessness.
  • Paranoia or irritability.
  • Fleeting euphoria.
  • Unpredictable behavior.
  • Doing repetitive, meaningless tasks.
  • Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.
  • Tremors.
  • Dry mouth, bad breath.
  • Headache.
  • Uncontrollable jaw clenching.
Other troubling signs of methamphetamine abuse include:
  • Anxiety.
  • Depression.
  • Fatigue.
  • Violent behavior.
  • Seizures.
  • Respiratory or airway abnormalities.
  • Persistently elevated heart rate, placing users at risk for heart attack.

DMT

What is DMT?

DMT (dimethyltryptamine) is a hallucinogen capable of inducing a psychedelic “trip,” which typically ranges from 30 to 45 minutes in duration. DMT is a Schedule 1 drug under the Controlled Substance Act and has no recognized medical use in the United States.

DMT can be extracted from a variety of plant sources. The drug can also be synthesized in a lab. DMT first became popular as a drug of abuse in the 1960s and has regained popularity among drug users within the last decade.

Signs and Symptoms

Someone taking DMT may report the following effects:

  • Altered sense of time and space.
  • Altered sense of one's physical body.
  • Depersonalization/out-of-body experience.
  • Profound and intense visual hallucinations.
  • Auditory hallucinations or distortions.
  • Perception of otherworldly images.
  • Altered visual perception.
  • Altered auditory perception.

Ecstasy

Ecstasy

Though the drug may be called different names, the chemical methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is what creates the effects of the drug.

Since ecstasy is illegal and has no current medically approved uses, the drug is typically manufactured in laboratories overseas and in Canada before being smuggled into the US. Makers of the drug often make tablets that look like candies in the likeness of cartoon characters to create more interest from users seeking that specific design.

Signs and Symptoms
When it first became popular in the 1990s, ecstasy was mostly used at dance parties and nightclubs. Now, the range of settings has broadened to college campuses and private homes. Deadly Recipes: The Danger of Mixing Ecstasy with Other Drugs

Dangers associated with ecstasy increase when makers add other drugs to the tablets to modify the results.

Drugs often mixed with ecstasy include:

  • Caffeine.
  • Dextromethorphan (DXM).
  • Amphetamines.
  • PCP.
  • Cocaine.
  • Ketamine.

In some cases, ecstasy is mixed with other drugs without the user's knowledge, increasing the danger.

Ecstasy is often abused for its reputation of being able to:
  • Diminish inhibitions.
  • Improve mood to a state of euphoria.
  • Strengthen feelings of connectedness.
  • Increase pleasure from physical touch.
  • Heighten sexuality and sexual arousal.
  • Increase alertness.
  • Enhance energy.
  • Make the user lose track of time.
The unwanted signs of ecstasy include:
  • Higher heart rate.
  • Increase blood pressure.
  • Muscle tension.
  • Tightness in mouth and jaw.
  • Feeling faint.
  • Hot or cold flashes.
  • Organ complications due to increased body temperature.
Risk of negative effects increases because:
  • People using ecstasy commonly take multiple doses in one session.
  • With uncontrolled drug manufacturing, it is impossible to tell how much of the drug one is consuming.
  • Frequently, there are other drugs mixed into the tablets.
  • Ecstasy can stimulate physical activity, which can lead to dehydration.
Effects of Ecstasy Abuse

Ecstasy triggers reactions from several brain chemicals to produce its range of effects. The chemicals can influence a number of feelings and emotions, such as pleasure, love, and trust. They also help to regulate body functions like sleep and hunger.

With ecstasy, the brain chemical most involved is the neurotransmitter serotonin. Researchers believe that ecstasy creates a flood of serotonin in the brain that mediates many of the pleasurable effects. When someone ends ecstasy use, they may find it difficult to achieve the same level of happiness because the brain has depleted its serotonin supply. This depletion triggers:

  • Depression.
  • Insomnia.
  • Poor memory.
  • Worry.
  • Confusion.

Increased desire for the drug.

Hashish

What is Hashish?
Hashish is a product extracted from the trichomes (fine hair-like outgrowths) of the cannabis plant as well as from the flowers and fragments of leaves and stems. Hashish contains essentially the same active ingredients found in marijuana, including THC; however, the concentration of these chemicals is much higher in hashish than it is in marijuana — the average proportion of THC in marijuana in the US is around 5%, whereas the THC in hash ranges from 5-15%. Hash oil is produced by solvent extraction of hashish and/or marijuana and typically has even higher levels of THC. Signs and Symptoms of Hash Abuse

Hash use and abuse can cause a number of signs and symptoms that may include:

  • Feelings of intense well-being.
  • Increased relaxation.
  • Hunger.
  • Sore throat.
  • Panic.
  • Paranoia.
  • Anxiety.
  • Tachycardia (rapid heart rate).
  • Hypertension (elevated blood pressure).
  • Impaired coordination.
  • Lack of motivation.
  • Impaired ability to pay attention.
  • Delusional thoughts.
  • Hallucinations.
Effects of (Substance) Abuse

Using hash over an extended period of time may produce a range of negative effects, including:

  • Immune system suppression.
  • Respiratory health issues similar to those that occur from smoking tobacco.
  • Sexual dysfunction in males as a result of decreased production of sexual hormones.
  • Potential issues with development in children who are prenatally exposed to THC.
  • Increased risk of cardiovascular issues.
  • Changes in the brain that lead to issues with sustained attention and concentration, learning and memory, and problem-solving.
  • The potential to develop mental health issues including depression and anxiety.

Other negative consequences associated with hashish addiction include:

  • Professional issues/job loss.
  • Financial issues.
  • Legal issues associated with illicit drug use.
  • Strained relationships with spouses, children, and other loved ones.
  • Loss of interest in previously enjoyed habits or personal responsibilities.

Heroin

Heroin:

Heroin is sold and used in a number of forms including white or brown powder, a black sticky substance (tar heroin), and solid black chunks. These different forms of heroin can be smoked, snorted, or injected under the skin, into muscle, or directly into the veins.

Signs and Symptoms
Signs and symptoms of heroin abuse will depend on how much, how often, and how long it has been abused. Immediate Symptoms

Some users report immediate negative symptoms from the drug like:

  • Nausea.
  • Vomiting.
  • Itching.
  • Dry mouth.
Delayed Symptoms

Following the immediate effects of heroin, another set of symptoms begin to occur that involve the body slowing down and being less active and alert. These signs of heroin use include:

  • Feeling drowsy and sleepy for several hours.
  • Having a foggy mental state.
  • Slowed breathing.
  • Slowed heart rate.
  • "Nodding," where the user will alternate between periods of being awake and asleep.
Signs of Long-Term Use

With continued use over a period of time, the person abusing heroin may exhibit other signs like:

  • Needle marks and bruising on the injection sites.
  • Skin problems like abscesses and infections.
  • Heart problems.
  • Disease in organs including the liver and kidneys.
  • Collapsed veins from repeated injections.

Inhalant

What are Inhalants?
Inhalants cover a phenomenal range of chemicals—anything that can be inhaled without burning or heating. Signs and Symptoms
  • Slurred speech.
  • Jerky reactions.
  • Mild highs.
  • A general loss of motor control.
  • Users will look like they're drunk.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Sedation.
  • Hallucinations.
  • Dilated pupils.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Facial rash where the inhalant blistered the skin.
  • You'll often notice a strange smell—a distinctive chemical-like smell that reminds you of fresh paint.
  • Users might also have marks around their mouth and noses, particularly if they're sniffing paint.
Effects of Inhalant Abuse

Risk of a Frozen Trachea

Someone who abuses inhalants by spraying them into their mouths could suffer from a frozen trachea.

What happens here is that the aerosol has to change from being a liquid to a gas, and it needs heat to do so. It takes heat from the surrounding area - normally the mouth - and this can lead to freezing, an agonizing way to die.

The long-term effects of inhalant use tend to be extremely nasty. Brain damage is the top one. Because these drugs quickly penetrate the blood-brain barrier (a protective 'shield' around the brain), you'll notice that the effects kick in quickly. However, adding a load of butane gas to your brain isn't healthy. Associated with brain damage are muscle weakness and depression. You might also notice a loss of sensation and severe nosebleeds.

As with many drugs, the long-term effects can include death. The body simply is not designed to handle inhalants, and the most common way to die is known as sudden sniffing death - the heart simply stops after inhaling solvents. This can happen the first time you inhale solvents or the thousandth time.

Ketamine

Ketamine:

Ketamine's dissociative effects are so powerful, it is commonly referred to as a "date rape drug." When ingested, Ketamine can cause users to hallucinate (experience visual and auditory disturbances). Because it's an anesthetic, it can reduce physical sensations and induce temporary paralysis, so the user is awake but unable to move his limbs or even talk.

Similar to LSD, ketamine's effects are varied and very unpredictable. It can induce euphoria, but in some cases, the hallucinations it causes can become extremely frightening. Mixing the drug with other depressants like alcohol and heroin intensifies the dangers of respiratory depression, which can be deadly.

Additionally, when the user is temporarily paralyzed by the drug, he won't be able to clear his airway, which can lead him to choke and potentially die from aspiration.

Signs and Symptoms

Ketamine is a very short-acting drug. One of the key symptoms people find is that it blocks pain, so if someone doesn't react to painful stimuli in an expected way, they may be under the influence.

Furthermore, it tends to slow people down and make their movements rather exaggerated due to loss of motor coordination. Consequently, they tend to look as though they're walking in slow motion. The person might also slur their speech and appear confused.

  • Disorientation.
  • Feelings of detachment/dissociation.
  • Hallucinations.
  • Slowed or difficult breathing.
  • Mood changes.
  • Depression.
  • Impaired ability to think or learn.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Memory impairment.
Effects of Ketamine Abuse

Ketamine is a rather unpleasant drug in the long-term. It tends to cause a wide variety of effects relating to almost every area of the body. In the stomach, it often causes severe abdominal pain. It's very easy to accidentally hurt yourself while on ketamine because it's an anesthetic. Pain tells us when we're injured or doing something that is likely to lead to injury. It also forces us to stop and focus on that injury, preventing further damage. Someone on Ketamine can incur a serious injury and continue on as if nothing happened, exacerbating the problem.

Ketamine also causes long-term damage to the bladder and urinary tract that can result in a condition known as ketamine bladder syndrome. This triggers decreased control of the bladder with incontinence. Ketamine bladder syndrome may also cause blood in the urine and ulcers in the bladder.

Since the drug is usually found as a powder, it is often sniffed, but most of these powders are mixed with other drugs. It may be something relatively harmless like talcum powder or sugar, or it could be combined with something more dangerous like acetaminophen or drain cleaner.

Dosing can be challenging to gauge, and in some cases, it could be the wrong drug altogether, leading to a dangerous overdose.

Kratom

Kratom:
Kratom has been used as an herbal medicine in countries like Thailand and Malaysia for hundreds of years. It has become increasingly popular in the US and Europe as an unregulated recreational drug--a "legal high." It has also found some popularity as an unsanctioned method of managing opiate withdrawal symptoms; however, this practice is largely against accepted medical advice and potentially dangerous."

Even though there are no recognized medical uses for kratom in the US, it is not a controlled substance and is sold both online and in head shops (also known as smoke shops and smart shops). It is available in the form of chopped leaves used for making tea or capsules or tablets that are swallowed. Signs and Symptoms

Kratom contains more than 20 biologically active compounds, although the most well-studied of these are mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. Many of the chemicals found in kratom are known to activate various neurotransmitter pathways in the brain and spinal cord including opiate, serotonin, and acetylcholine signaling. Because of these various activities in the brain, kratom intoxication has several distinct effects that depend on the amount of drug ingested.

Low doses of kratom (<5 g of raw leaves) generally have stimulant effects similar to amphetamine, though not as intense. These effects include:

  • Reduced fatigue and increased energy.
  • Greater alertness.
  • Decreased appetite.
  • Heightened sex drive.
  • Increased sociability.
  • Agitation.
  • Anxiety.
  • Tremors.
  • Impaired coordination.

Higher doses of kratom elicit more opiate-like effects in users similar to those of narcotic drugs such as morphine or oxycodone, but less intense. These effects include:

  • Euphoria.
  • Sedation.
  • Reduced pain.
  • Cough suppression.
  • Constipation.
  • Dysphoria (sense of unease or impending calamity).
  • Nausea.
  • Itching.

Krokodil

Facts about Krokodil (the “Zombie Drug”)

Desomorphine (dihydrodesoxymorphine) is an injectable opioid derivative of codeine.

The name “krokodil” is thought to either derive from the appearance of a user’s skin around the injection site (which may become discolored and scaly – resembling that of a crocodile), or be in reference to α-chlorocodide (a codeine derivative and chemical precursor used in desomorphine production).

Krokodil is a Schedule I substance in the United States, meaning it has high abuse potential and no accepted medicinal use.

Effects and Hazards?

Krokodil’s effects can be extremely serious. Injection of the drug can cause:

  • Skin infections.
  • Soft tissue infections.
  • Thrombophlebitis (inflammation of the veins).
  • Skin ulceration.
  • Gangrene.
  • Necrosis (death of living tissue).

LSD

What is LSD?
Most individuals using LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) typically feel euphoric, experience visual hallucinations, and often have very intense moods; however, so-called “bad trips” can occur in individuals, resulting in extreme anxiety (including panic attacks) and significant depression. Potential effects of LSD include?
  • Increased body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure.
  • Profound sweating.
  • Dizziness.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Dry mouth.
  • Tremors.
  • Numbness.
  • Impulsiveness.
  • Mood swings.
  • Hallucinations.
  • Distorted thinking.
What are some of the Long-Term Effects of LSD?
LCD use, in rare cases, can lead to Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder, or chronic flashbacks of experiences while on LSD. These flashbacks can cause significant impairment or distress in the user’s life and can last for years.

Marijuana

Marijuana
Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States and is known by a large variety of names including cannabis, pot, weed, grass, hash, and many others. Signs and Symptoms
  • Marijuana intoxication produces effects including:
  • Euphoria.
  • Relaxation.
  • Drowsiness.
  • Altered sense of time.
  • Impaired memory.
  • Slowed reflexes and impaired motor skills.
  • Bloodshot eyes.
  • Increased appetite.
  • Dry mouth.
  • Increased heart rate.
  • Cognitive impairments.
  • Paranoia.
Effects of Marijuana Abuse?

In addition to positive and negative intoxicating effects, marijuana abuse can also have negative effects on an individual’s physical and mental health, especially in someone who uses marijuana for a long period of time.

Long-term detrimental effects of marijuana may include:

  • Respiratory problems: Marijuana smoke has many of the same irritating and lung-damaging properties as tobacco smoke. Long-term users may develop a chronic cough and are at higher risk of lung infections.
  • Cardiovascular risk: Marijuana ingestion increases the heart rate for several hours, increasing the chance of heart attack or stroke. This may aggravate pre-existing heart conditions in long-term users and those who are older—placing them at greater risk of a cardiovascular event.
  • Mental health effects: Long-term marijuana use can decrease an individual’s performance on memory-related tasks and cause a decrease in motivation and interest in everyday activities. Marijuana is also known to intensify symptoms in users with schizophrenia.
  • Child development: Marijuana use during pregnancy can affect the development of the fetus’s brain and has been linked to behavioral problems in babies.
  • Psychological dependence: Like most other drugs of abuse, individuals who use marijuana for long periods of time can develop a dependence on it. Signs of dependence in a user include the need to use marijuana to cope with everyday tasks and the experience of cravings and anxiety when marijuana is not available.

Meth

What is Meth?

Methamphetamine is a psychostimulant that produces effects in users similar to cocaine and prescription stimulants like methylphenidate (Ritalin).

Pharmaceutical grade methamphetamine is approved for use in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or obesity under the trade name Desoxyn, but it is rarely prescribed because the drug has a high potential for abuse and safer alternatives are available.

The drug is most commonly used recreationally and is sold as a pill, powder, or crystal “rock”. It can be swallowed, snorted, injected, or smoked.

Signs and Symptoms

Like other stimulant drugs, methamphetamine acts by raising levels of several neurotransmitters in the brain including dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin. By increasing the activity of these neurotransmitters in the brain, methamphetamine can deliver a powerful, temporary boost to energy and mood.

Effects of Meth Abuse

Short-term effects of methamphetamine use can include the following:

Brain damage observed in experimental animals and long-term methamphetamine abusers resembles that seen in patients with Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases.

Meth use can lead to many detrimental physical and mental effects over time. Some of the most common long-term side effects of methamphetamine abuse include:

  • Damage to brain cells (neurotoxicity).
  • Paranoia, anxiety, and insomnia.
  • Deterioration of teeth (meth mouth).
  • Sores and infections on the skin.
  • Strokes.
  • Cardiovascular disease.
  • Liver, lung, and kidney damage.
  • Birth defects when used by women during pregnancy.
  • Hallucinations and psychosis due to sleep deprivation.
  • Death.

Mushrooms

What are Psilocybin-Mushrooms?
Psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N, N-dimethyltryptamine) is a hallucinogenic substance that is found in more than 200 types of mushrooms. These mushrooms are typically found in certain regions of South America, Mexico, and the United States. Common street names for mushrooms that contain psilocybin include magic mushrooms, mushrooms, and shrooms. The mushrooms are typically eaten, and they are also commonly brewed as a tea. Effects by digesting mushrooms include.
  • Relaxation.
  • Spiritual experiences.
  • Hallucinations.
  • Panic.
  • Paranoia.
  • Psychosis.
  • Nausea.
  • Vomiting.
Are There Risks with using Psilocybin- Mushrooms?
One risk associated with psilocybin use is that of poisoning. Users may misidentify the mushrooms and accidentally ingest poisonous mushrooms, which can result in death.

MXE

MXE Abuse

Methoxetamine, also known as MXE, is a drug similar to ketamine and known for its hallucinogenic and dissociative properties. MXE (sometimes called “Mexxy,” “M-ket,” “Special M,” or “legal ketamine”) is commonly sold on the internet as a “research chemical” and labeled as “not for human consumption,” in order to avoid federal regulations.

It is often falsely marketed as a safer alternative to ketamine; however, it has been shown to cause numerous physical and mental health problems at high doses—including psychotic reactions and cerebellar toxicity—and is shown to have a high addictive potential.

Signs and Symptoms

Someone who is intoxicated by MXE may experience the following:

  • Intense feelings of happiness (euphoria).
  • Reduced feelings of depression.
  • Increased empathy.
  • Increased introspection.
  • A sense of peacefulness and calm.
  • Feeling out of one’s body.
  • Enhanced sensory experiences.
  • Dissociation (referred to as the “M-hole”).
  • Spiritual and transcendent experiences.

They may also experience distressing symptoms such as:

  • Anxiety and panic.
  • Paranoia.
  • Fear.
  • Impaired coordination.
  • Catatonia.
  • Trouble speaking.
  • Increased heart rate.
  • High blood pressure.
  • Nausea/vomiting.
  • Respiratory depression.

PCP

What is PCP?

Phencyclidine (PCP) was initially developed as a general anesthetic, but because its use is associated with serious side effects, the dissociative drug is no longer used medicinally. Pure PCP is white and crystalline in appearance but additives may give it a tan or brown color. PCP is commonly taken orally in tablet or capsule form, smoked, snorted as a powder, or injected.

The effects of PCP vary depending on the dose, but in general, the user will feel effects within 1-5 minutes if the hallucinogen is injected or smoked and within about 30 minutes if taken orally or snorted. Intoxication typically lasts about 4-6 hours, and effects may include:

  • Euphoria.
  • Feelings of invulnerability and strength.
  • Disorientation.
  • Distorted sensory perception.
  • Disordered thoughts.
  • Hallucinations and illusions.
  • Violent or bizarre behaviors.
  • Severe anxiety.
  • Amnesia.
  • Paranoia.
  • Numbness or diminished response to pain.
Risks Associated?

PCP intoxication increases the risk of injuries from assaults, accidents, or falls. Chronic PCP use can lead to impairments in cognition, speech, and memory, and these deficits may last for months. It’s not uncommon for long-term PCP users to also experience:

  • Heart attacks.
  • Respiratory issues.
  • Intracranial hemorrhage (bleeding inside the skull).
  • Rhabdomyolosis (the breakdown of muscle tissue, which can lead to kidney failure).
  • Depression.
What Are The Street Names for PCP?
Street names for PCP include angel dust, animal tranquilizer, and rocket fuel.

Peyote

What is Peyote?

Peyote is a small cactus containing the active ingredient, mescaline. Mescaline comes from the small protrusions (“buttons”) on the cactus but can also be produced artificially. Peyote may be one of the oldest known hallucinogenic drugs.

These effects include:

  • Increased heart rate and body temperature.
  • Vomiting.
  • Flushed skin.
  • Extreme sweating.
  • Coordination problems.
  • Hallucinations.
  • Altered perception and body image.
  • Anxiety.

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